In 841, in the struggle for the succession of the Duchy of Benevento, Prince Radelchis I hired Saracen mercenaries commanded by Berber Halfun, against Landolphe, Count of Caserta. The Saracens pillaged and destroyed the ancient Capua (now Santa Maria Capua Vetere). The population fled, first to Sicopoli (village at the foot of Mount Triflisco) and then moved in 856 on an elbow of the Volturno River, where was the Roman river port of Casilinum. It became the “New Capua”, nowadays referred to simply as “Capua”.
During the 10th century, the New Capua became the capital of the Principality of Capua, an autonomous Lombard state extending over the Land of Labor (region now shared between Lazio, Campania and Molise), extending its domination over cities like Caserta, Teano, Sessa, etc.
Capua reaches its peak with the Lombard Prince Pandolfo I Testadiferro (961-981).
In 1059 the Norman Count Richard I of Aversa conquered the Lombardy Principality of Capua. Under the Normans, its strategic position was strengthened, both militarily and commercially. It has become an active river port protected by strong walls.
Half a century later, Henry VI of Swabia occupied it and destroyed its walls (later reconstructed). His son, Frederick II (born from a Norman princess), King of Sicily, built the two towers to defend the Roman bridge and a sumptuous triumphal arch, demolished under Charles V.
During the conflict between the Swabians and Angevins, the city suffered many attacks. With the Angevins, the city gained importance. Under the Aragonese, Capua remained quiet, became a cultural center. But under Frederick I of Aragon (crowned in the cathedral of Capua), it suffered a sacking in 1501 by Cesare Borgia, where died several thousands of inhabitants.